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Science and Research

ARCHIVED - Health Policy Research Bulletin Issue 17

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English References

Glossary

  1. International Organization for Migration (IOM). International Migration Law - Glossary on Migration. Geneva: IOM; 2004 [cited 2010 May 10]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.iom.ch/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/
    mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/Glossary_eng.pdf
  2. Adapted from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Refugees. 2010 Aug 9 [cited 2010 May 10]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/index.asp
  3. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 May 10]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp

Migration Health: Emerging Perspectives

  1. Public Health Agency of Canada. What Determines Health? 2010 May 18 [cited 2010 May 18]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php

Migration Patterns and Trends: A Quantitative Snapshot

  1. Helsedirektoratet Norwegian Directorate of Health. Migration and Health: Challenges and Trends. ISBN 978-82-8081-150-9. 2009 May. p. 15.
  2. International Organization for Migration. About Migration-Facts & Figures [cited 2010 Jun 18]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/facts-and-figures/lang/en
  3. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. International Migration 2009 [wallchart; cited 2010 Jun 18]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications
    /2009Migration_Chart/ittmig_wallchart09.pdf
  4. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, Highlights. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.210. 2009. p. 18.
  5. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: Summary Tables-Permanent and Temporary Residents. 2010 Aug 18 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/resources/statistics/facts2009/index.asp
  6. Statistics Canada. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2006. p. 5.
  7. Statistics Canada. Study: Projections of the diversity of the Canadian population. The Daily, Tuesday, March 9, 2010 [cited 2010 Mar 25]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100309/dq100309a-eng.htm
  8. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 25]. p. 2. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  9. Boyd M, Vickers M. 100 years of immigration in Canada. Canadian Social Trends. Autumn 2000;58:2-12 [cited 2010 Mar 25]. p. 7. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2000002/article/5164-eng.pdf
  10. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  11. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 1. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  12. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 47. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  13. For 1998-2008 data: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 23. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
    For 2009 data: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: Summary Tables-Permanent and Temporary Residents. 2010 Aug 18 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/resources/statistics/facts2009/index.asp
  14. Calculated using total entries of temporary foreign workers for 2009 from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: Summary Tables-Permanent and Temporary Residents. 2010 Aug 18 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/resources/statistics/facts2009/index.asp
    Total entries of Seasonal Agricultural Workers for 2009 from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Canada's Temporary Temporary Foreign Worker Program: DG Research Forum. 2010 Aug 19.
  15. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. p. 23-25. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  16. Statistics Canada. Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-562-X. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2008 Apr. p. 5.
  17. Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007 Dec [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 18. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/index-eng.cfm
  18. Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007 Dec [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 19. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/index-eng.cfm
  19. Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007 Dec [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 20. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/index-eng.cfm
  20. Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007 Dec [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 13. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/index-eng.cfm
  21. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration, 2009. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 26. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/annual-report2009/index.asp
  22. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration, 2009. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 16. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/annual-report2009/index.asp
  23. Galarneau D, Morissette R. Immigrants' education and required job skills. Perspectives. Catalogue No. 75-001-X. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2008 Dec. p. 6.
  24. Statistics Canada. Immigrants account for a large proportion of doctorate and master's degree holders. 2006 Census: Educational Portrait of Canada, 2006 Census: Immigration. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2008 [cited 2010 Mar 11]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-560/p13-eng.cfm
  25. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 38, 39. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  26. Dumont J-C, Zurn P, Church J, Le Thi C. International Mobility of Health Professionals and Health Workforce Management in Canada: Myths and Realities. OECD Health Working Paper No. 40. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2008 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. p. 61. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/59/41590427.pdf

Canada's Migration Health Legislation and Policies: Over the Centuries

  1. Bilson G. The first epidemic of Asiatic cholera in Lower Canada, 1832. Med Hist. 1977;21:411 - 33.
  2. An Act Respecting Emigrants and Quarantine, 1866 (Can.), c. 40.
  3. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Federal-Provincial/Territorial Agreements. 2009 Aug 20 [cited 2010 Mar 19]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/index.asp
  4. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Agreement for Canada-British Columbia Co-Operation on Immigration-2004. Annex H: Immigration Health. 2004 Apr 5 [cited 2010 Mar 19]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/bc/bc-2004-annex-h.asp
  5. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian Tuberculosis Committee (CTC). 2010 Feb 19 [cited 2010 Mar 19]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/tbpc-latb/ctc-ccla/index-eng.php
  6. Godler Z. Doctors and the new immigrants. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 1977;9:6 - 17.
  7. Department of National Health and Welfare Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. N-10, s. 5( c ).
  8. Order-in-Council P.C. 1957-11/848.
  9. Service Canada. Interim Federal Health Program. 2009 Oct 8 [cited 2010 Feb 4]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/goc/interim_health.shtml
  10. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Interim Federal Health Program. Information Handbook for Health-Care Providers. Edmonton (AB): FAS Benefit Administrators Ltd., IFH Program Priority Processing; Updated 2006 Nov [cited 2010 Apr 22]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.fasadmin.com/images/pdf/%7B593DF72A-D33E-496B-ABF5-27511E2BE550%7D_IFH_Manual_English_06.pdf
  11. Creatore MI, Moineddin R, Booth G, Manuel DH, DesMeules M, McDermott S, et al. Age- and sex-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus among immigrants to Ontario, Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 2010. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.091551.
  12. Chiu M, Austin PC, Manuel DG, Tu JV. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profiles among ethnic groups using population health surveys between 1996 and 2007. Can Med Assoc J. 2010. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.091676.
  13. British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. Submission on the Green Paper on Immigration, May 1975 [cited 2010 Feb 14]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.bccla.org/positions/admin/75greenpaper.html
  14. Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, SOR/2002 - 227, s. 1(1)( a).

Canadian Migration Health Timeline

  1. Heagerty J. The Romance of Medicine in Canada. Toronto (ON): Ryerson Press; 1940.
  2. Migration Health Task Force. Improving the Management of Migration Health: An Action Plan for the 21st Century. Ottawa (ON); 2005 May.
  3. The Revised Acts and Ordinances of Lower Canada by Québec (Province), Buchanan A, Heney H, Wicksteed GW, Québec (Province). Commissioners for revising the statutes and ordinances of Lower Canada. Montréal (QC); 1845. p. 296.
  4. A history of the late province of Lower Canada: parliamentary and political, from the commencement to the close of its existence as a separate province. Vol. 3. Montréal (QC): Richard Worthington; 1866.
  5. Bilson G. The first epidemic of Asiatic cholera in Lower Canada, 1832. Med Hist. 1977;21:411-33.
  6. Nova Scotia, 2 William IV, c. XVIII; New Brunswick, 2 William IV, c. XXXVI; Lower Canada, 2 William IV, c. XVII.
  7. Parks Canada. Grosse Île and the Irish Memorial National Historic Site of Canada. History-The evolution of the historic role of Grosse Île. Quarantine and public health: The changing role of Grosse Île. 2009 Jul 13 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/lhn-nhs/qc/grosseile/natcul/natcul1/a.aspx
  8. Ministère des affaires étrangères. Procès-verbaux de la Conférence sanitaire internationale ouverte à Paris le 27 juillet 1851, Tome I. Paris: Imprimerie nationale; 1852 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/7309389?n=4&imagesize=1200&jp2Res=.25
  9. Chadha E. "Mentally Defectives" not welcome: Mental disability in Canadian immigration law, 1859-1927. Disability Studies Quarterly. 2008 Winter:28(1) [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.dsq-sds.org/article/view/67/67
  10. An Act Respecting Emigrants and Quarantine, 1866 (Can.), c. 40 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.canadiana.org/view/46586/0003
  11. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. British Home Children. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2010 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/homechild/index.asp
  12. Smart J. Business Immigration to Canada: Deception and exploitation. In: Skeldon R, editor. Reluctant exiles?: Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese. Armonk (NY): M.E. Sharpe, Inc.; 1994.
  13. University of Calgary, Applied History Research Group. The Peopling of Canada: 1891-1921 [online tutorial; cited 2010 Apr 30]. Calgary (AB): University of Calgary; 1997. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/canada1891/
  14. Walker B, editor. The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings. Toronto (ON): Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.; 2008. p. 195.
  15. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship and Immigration, 1900-1977. Chapter 3: Charting a New Course. The Immigration Act of 1910 [cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/chap-3.asp#chap3-4
  16. Tétreault M. Les archives médicales de la quarantine du ministère fédéral de l'agriculture aux Archives nationales du Canada, 1867-1918. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History. 1992;9(2):255-9.
  17. An Act to amend the Immigration Act, 1919 (Can.), c. 25 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.canadiana.org/view/9_08048/3
  18. Annual Report of Minister of Immigration and Colonization, 1928-29. p. 6-7.
  19. Government of Canada. Green Paper on Immigration Policy. Vol. 2. 1974. p. 13-14.
  20. Vineberg R. Presentation: Brown Bag Seminar-Immigration Policy and Immigrant Health; 2010 Jan 20; Edmonton (AB).
  21. Department of Pensions and National Health. Medical Examination of Immigrants-Instructions to Medical Officers. Ottawa (ON): Department of Pensions and National Health; 1931.
  22. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
  23. House of Commons. Debates, 1947. Vol. III. Ottawa (ON): King's Printer; 1947. p. 2644-6.
  24. Canadian Council for Refugees. Brief history of Canada's responses to refugees. Montréal (QC): Canadian Council for Refugees; 2009 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ccrweb.ca/canadarefugeeshistory2.htm
  25. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship and Immigration, 1900-1977. Chapter 5: Toward the Canadian Citizenship Act. The 1952 Immigration Act. 2006 Jul 1 [cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/chap-5b.asp#chap5-11
  26. Canadian Council for Refugees. A Hundred Years of Immigration to Canada, 1900-1999 [cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ccrweb.ca/history.html
  27. Shuker R, Stadnyk A. Fruits of labour: The truth about migrant workers in Ontario. History of Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program. New Media Journalism. 2008 [cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.fims.uwo.ca/NewMedia2008/SAWP.aspx
  28. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Canadian Multiculturalism: An Inclusive Citizenship. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2008 Oct 24 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/citizenship.asp
  29. The Immigration Act, 1976, 1976-77 (Can.), c. 52, s. 115(1)( a ).
  30. The Immigration Act, 1976, 1976 - 77 (Can.), c. 52, s. 2(1).
  31. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. 24 (4th Supp.).
  32. Smith and Hughes, Barristers and Solicitors. Overview of Canadian Immigration Law and Policies on HIV [cited 2010 Apr 30]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://smith-hughes.com/papers/pdf_bin/Overview-of-Canadian-Immigration-LawPoliciesHIV.pdf
  33. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Overseas Processing Manual, c. OP-5, s. 5.3.
  34. Swinkels H, Pottie K, Tugwell P, Rashid M, Narasiah L, for the Canadian Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health (CCIRH). Development of guidelines for recently arrived immigrants and refugees to Canada: Delphi concenus on selecting preventable and treatable conditions. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 Jun 28:1-5 [cited 2010 Sep 23]. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.090290. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ecmaj.com/cgi/rapidpdf/cmaj.090290v2

The Healthy Immigrant Effect: A Temporary Phenomenon?

  1. Hyman I. Immigration and Health. Health Policy Working Paper Series. Working Paper No. 01-05. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2001 Sep.
  2. Hyman I. Immigration and Health: Reviewing Evidence of the Healthy Immigrant Effect in Canada. CERIS Working Paper No. 55. Toronto (ON): Joint Centre of Excellence for Research in Immigration and Settlement; 2007 Mar.
  3. Biddle N, Kennedy S, MacDonald JT. Health assimilation patterns amongst Australian immigrants. Economic Record. 2007;83(260):16-30.
  4. Frisbie WP, Youngtae C, Hummer RA. Immigration and the health of Asian and Pacific Islander adults in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:372-80.
  5. Muenning P, Fahs MC. Health status and hospital utilization of recent immigrants to New York City. Prev Med. 2002;35:225-31.
  6. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard C, Choiniere R. The Canadian census mortality follow-up study, 1991 through 2001. Health Rep. 2008;19(3):25-43.
  7. Trovato F. Migration and Survival: The Mortality Experience of Immigrants in Canada. Research reported submitted to the Prairie Centre for Research on Immigration and Integration (PCRII). 2003 Aug [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://pcerii.metropolis.net/Virtual%20Library/FinalReports/Migration%20and%20Survival%20-%20Part%201.pdf
  8. DesMeules M, Gold J, McDermott S, Cao Z, Payne J, Lafrance B, et al. Disparities in mortality patterns among Canadian immigrants and refugees, 1980-1998: Results of a national cohort study. J Immigr Health. 2005;7(4):221-32.
  9. Ng E, Wilkins R, Gendron F, Berthelot J-M. Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: Evidence from the National Population Health Survey. Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings from the National Population Health Survey. Issue 2. Catalogue No. 82-618-MWE2005002. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2005 [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm
  10. Newbold KB. Health status and health care of immigrants in Canada: A longitudinal analysis. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2005;10(2):77-83a.
  11. De Maio FG, Kemp E. The deterioration of health status among immigrants to Canada. Glob Public Health. 2010;5(5):462-78.
  12. McDermott S, DesMeules M, Lewis R, Gold J, Payne J, Lafrance B, et al. Cancer incidence among Canadian immigrants, 1980-1998: Results from a national cohort study. J Immigr Minor Health, Online First, 19 May 2010. DOI:10.1007/s0903-010-9347-3
  13. Pérez CE. Health status and health behaviour among immigrants. Health Rep. 2002;13(Suppl):1-13.
  14. Luo W, Birkett NJ, Ugnat AM, Mao Y. Cancer incidence patterns among Chinese immigrant populations in Alberta. J Immigr Health. 2004;6(1):41-8.
  15. Au WY, Gascoyne RD, Gallagher RE, Le N, Klasa RD, Liang RHS, et al. Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese migrants to British Columbia: A 25-year survey. Ann Oncol. 2004;15:626-30.
  16. Newbold KB. Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: Risk and the healthy immigrant effect. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:1359-70.
  17. Sheth T, Nair C, Nargundkar M, Anand S, Yusuf S. Cardiovascular and cancer mortality among Canadians of European, South Asian and Chinese origin from 1979 to 1993: An analysis of 1.2 million deaths. Can Med Assoc J. 1999;161(2):131-8.
  18. Saposik G, FAHA, Redelmeier DA, Lu H, Lonn E, Fuller Thomson E, Ray JG. Risk of premature stroke in recent immigrants (PRESARIO): Population-based matched cohort study. Neurology. 2010;74(6):451-7 [e-publication ahead of print; CME].
  19. Tremblay MS, Bryan SN, Perez CE, Ardern CI, Katzmarzyk PT. Physical activity and immigrant status: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Can J Public Health. 2006;97(4):277-82.
  20. Lear SA, Humphries KH, Hage-Moussa S, Chockalingam A, Mancini GBJ. Immigration presents a potential increased risk for atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205(2):584-9.
  21. Chiu M, Austin PC, Manuel DG, Tu JV. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profiles among ethnic groups using population health surveys between 1996 and 2007. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 May 18;182(8):E301-10.
  22. Kaplan MS, Chang C, Newsom JT, McFarland BH. Acculturation status and hypertension among Asian immigrants in Canada. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002;56:455-6.
  23. Anand SS, Razak F, Yi Q, Davis B, Jacobs R, Vuksan V, et al. C-reactive protein as a screening test for cardiovascular risk in a multiethnic population. Arterioscler Throm Vasc Biol. 2006;24:1509-15.
  24. Public Health Agency of Canada. Building a National Diabetes Strategy: Synthesis of Research and Collaborations. Consultation findings. Vol. 1. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2005 [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/bnds-bsnd/index-eng.php
  25. Misra A, Ganda O. Migration and its impact on adiposity and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition. 2007;23(9):696-708.
  26. Creatore M, Moineddin R, Booth G, Manual D, Glazier R. Age and sex patterns of diabetes among immigrants to Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 May 18;182(8):781-9.
  27. McDonald JT, Kennedy S. Is migration to Canada associated with unhealthy weight gain? Overweight and obesity among Canada's immigrants. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:2469-81.
  28. Setia M, Quesnel-Vallee A, Abrahamowicz M, Tousignant P, Lynch J. Convergence of body mass index of immigrants to the canadian-born population: Evidence from the national population health survey (1994-2006). Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(10):611-23.
  29. Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees. After the Door Has Opened: Mental Health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Supply and Services Canada; 1986.
  30. Malenfant ÉC. Suicide in Canada's immigrant population. Health Rep. 2004;15(2):9-17.
  31. Ali J. Mental health of Canada's immigrants. Supplement to Health Rep. Catalogue No. 82-003. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2002.
  32. Beiser M. Resettling refugees and safeguarding their mental health: Lessons learned from the Canadian Refugee Resettlement Project. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2009;46(4):539-83.
  33. Beiser M. Strangers at the Gate: The "Boat People's" First Ten Years in Canada. Toronto (ON): University of Toronto Press; 1999.
  34. Beiser M, Hou F, Hyman I, Tousignant M. Poverty, family process, and the mental health of immigrant children in Canada. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(2):220-77.
  35. Rousseau C, Drapeau A, Platt R. Living conditions and emotional profiles of Cambodian, Central American, and Québécois youth. Can J Psychiatry. 2000;45:905-11.
  36. Rousseau C, Drapeau A. Are refugee children an at-risk group? A longitudinal study of Cambodian adolescents. Journal of Refugee Studies. 2003;16(1):67-81.
  37. Georgiades K, Boyle MH, Duku E. Contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance: The moderating effects of family immigrant status. Child Dev. 2007;78(5):1572-91.
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  39. Kliewer EV, Ward D. Convergence of immigrant suicide rates to those in the destination country. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;127(3):640-53.
  40. Lai DWL. Impact of culture on depressive symptoms of elderly Chinese immigrants. Can J Psychiatry. 2004;49(12):820-7.
  41. Lai DWL. Health status of older Chinese in Canada: Findings from the SF-36 health survey. Can J Public Health. 2004;95(3):93-197.
  42. Fenta H, Hyman I, Noh S. Determinants of depression among Ethiopian immigrants and refugees in Toronto. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192(5):363-72.
  43. Smith KLW, Matheson FI, Moineddin R, Glazier RH. Gender, income and immigration differences in depression in Canadian urban centres. Can J Public Health. 2007;98(2):149-54.
  44. Hyman I, Forte T, Du Mont J, Romans S, Cohen MM. The association between length of stay in Canada and intimate partner violence among immigrant women. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(4):654-9.
  45. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard C, Choiniere R. The Canadian census mortality follow-up study, 1991 through 2001. Health Rep. 2008;19(3):25-43.
  46. Hux JE, Tang M. Patterns of prevalence and incidence of diabetes. In: Hux J, Slaughter P, Laupacis A, editors. Diabetes in Ontario. Toronto (ON): Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences; 2003 Jun [cited 2010 May]. Chapter 1. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ices.on.ca/webpage.cfm?site_id=1&org_
    id=31&morg_id=0&gsec_id=0&item_id=1312
  47. Anand S, Yusuf S, Vuksan V, Devanesen S. Differences in risk factors, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease between ethnic groups in Canada: The Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic Groups (SHARE). Lancet. 2000;356:279-84.
  48. Vissandjee B, DesMeules M, Cao Z, Abdool S. Integrating socio-economic determinants of Canadian women's health. BMC Women's Health. 2004;4(Suppl 1):S34.
  49. Beiser M. Longitudinal research to promote effective refugee resettlement. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2006;43(1):56-71.
  50. Rousseau C, Drapeau A. Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192(12):852-6.
  51. Wu Z, Noh S, Kaspar V, Schimmele CM. Race, ethnicity, and depression in Canadian society. J Health Soc Behav. 2003;44(3):426-41.
  52. McDonald JT. The Health Behaviours of Immigrants and Native-Born People in Canada. Atlantic Metropolis Centre-Working Paper Series. Working Paper No. 01-06. Halifax (NS): Atlantic Metropolis Centre; 2006 [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.atlantic.metropolis.net/WorkingPapers/McDonald-WP1.pdf
  53. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Population and Life Course Studies Unit. Does student substance use vary by immigrant status? eBulletin. 2005 Jan/Feb;6(1) [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.camh.net/Research/Areas_of_research/Population_Life_Course_Studies
    /eBulletins/ebv6n1_ImmigrantStudents_2003OSDUS.pdf
  54. Tremblay MS, Bryan SN, Perez CE, Ardern CI, Katzmarzyk PT. Physical activity and immigrant status: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Can J Public Health. 2006;97(4):277-82.
  55. Statistics Canada. Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population, 2006 to 2031. Catalogue No. 91-551-X. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2010 [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-551-x/91-551-x2010001-eng.htm
  56. Gushalak BD, MacPherson DW. Population mobility and health: An overview of the relationships between movement and population health. J Travel Med. 2004;11(3):171-8 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2310/7060.2004.18490/pdf

Spotlight on Research: Chronic Disease Patterns for Immigrants to Canada: A Recent Data Analysis

Analysis Methods

Data was drawn from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). To account for the CCHS complex sample design, all results were weighted and bootstrap techniques were used to estimate coefficients of variation (CV) and confidence intervals (CI). Odds ratios (OR) adjusted by age and sex using logistic models are reported.

Table 1: Prevalence and Odds Ratios of at Least One Chronic Disease,* by Immigration Status and/or Number of Years Since Immigration
  Prevalence, %
(95% CI)
OR**
(95% CI)
OR***
(95% CI)
All immigrants 34.4 (33.3-35.5) 0.6 (0.6-0.7) -
Immigrants ≤5 years in Canada 15.0 (12.8-17.2) 0.4 (0.3-0.5) E 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 38.2 (37.0-39.4) 0.7 (0.6-0.7) 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Canadian-born 39.9 (39.4-40.3) 1.0 -

*At least one of the following seven chronic diseases: arthritis, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disease/stroke, mood disorders/anxiety, and chronic diseases of the digestive system.
**Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age and sex; reference category: Canadian-born.
***Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age and sex; reference category: immigrants ≤5 years in Canada.
CI = confidence intervals
E = Data with CV from 16.6%-33.3%; these data should be interpreted with caution.

Table 2: Prevalence and Odds Ratios of Chronic Diseases and Conditions, by Immigration Status and Number of Years Since Immigration
  Prevalence, %
(95% CI)
OR*
(95% CI)
OR**
(95% CI)
Arthritis/rheumatism
All immigrants 15.0 (14.2-15.7) 0.8 (0.7-0.8) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 2.9 (1.8-3.9) E FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 17.4 (16.5-18.2) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 2.3 (1.5-3.4)
Canadian-born 15.2 (14.9-15.5) 1.0 -
Cancer (has or ever had cancer)
All immigrants 5.1 (4.7-5.5) 0.6 (0.6-0.7) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 2.9 (1.8-3.9) E FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 5.9 (5.4-6.4) 0.7 (0.6-0.7) 2.3 (1.4-3.8)
Canadian-born 6.3 (6.1-6.5) 1.0 -
Diabetes (types 1 and 2)
All immigrants 7.5 (6.8-8.1) 1.2 (1.1-1.4) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 2.3 (1.2-3.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) E 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 8.5 (7.7-9.3) 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 1.7 (1.0-2.9)
Canadian-born 5.3 (5.1-5.5) 1.0 -
COPD §§/asthma
All immigrants 6.4 (5.9-6.9) 0.5 (0.5-0.6) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 3.9 (2.8-5.1) FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 6.9 (6.3-7.5) 0.6 (0.5-0.6) 1.3 (0.9-1.8)
Canadian-born 11.1 (10.8-11.4) 1.0 -
Heart disease/stroke
All immigrants 5.9 (5.4-6.5) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 1.5 (0.5-2.4) E FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 6.8 (6.2-7.4) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 1.1 (0.6-2.3) E
Canadian-born 5.4 (5.2-5.6) 1.0 -
Mood disorders/anxiety***
All immigrants 6.7 (6.2-7.2) 0.6 (0.6-0.7) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 4.0 (2.8-5.3) FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 7.2 (6.6-7.7) 0.6 (0.6-0.7) 1.6 (1.1-2.2)
Canadian-born 10.6 (10.3-10.9) 1.0 -
Chronic diseases of the digestive system§
All immigrants 5.3 (4.9-5.7) 0.7 (0.6-0.7) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 2.4 (1.7-3.2) FΩ 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 5.9 (5.4-6.4) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 1.6 (1.2-2.3)
Canadian-born 7.2 (7.0-7.5) 1.0 -
Chronic conditions: Obesity or overweight††
All immigrants 45.6 (44.3-46.9) 0.7 (0.7-0.8) -
Immigrants ≤5 years in Canada 28.9 (25.9-31.9) 0.4 (0.4-0.5) E 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 48.6 (47.2-50.0) 0.8 (0.7-0.8) 1.7 (1.5-2.0)
Canadian-born 52.8 (52.3-53.3) 1.0 -
Chronic conditions: High blood pressure
All immigrants 18.3 (17.4-19.1) 1.0 (0.9-1.0) -
Immigrants 5 years in Canada 5.4 (4.0-6.8) E 0.7 (0.6-0.9) E 1.0
Immigrants >5 years in Canada 20.8 (19.8-21.8) 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 1.4 (1.0-1.9)
Canadian-born 15.5 (15.3-5.8) 1.0 -

*Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age and sex; reference category: Canadian-born.
**Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age and sex; reference category: Immigrants ≤5 years in Canada.
***Mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia; anxiety disorders such as phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder or a panic disorder.
CI = confidence intervals
††= Estimated from self-reported height and weight.
§Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bowel incontinence or intestinal/stomach ulcers.
§§ Bronchitis or emphysema
E = Data with a coefficient of variation (CV) from 16.6% to 33.3%; these data should be interpreted with caution.
ΩF = Data with a coefficient of variation (CV) greater than 33.3% were suppressed due to extreme sampling variability.

Table 3: Prevalence and Odds Ratios of Chronic Diseases and Conditions in Immigrants in Canada >5 Years Compared with Recent Immigrants
(Reference population: Recent immigrants in Canada ≤5 years)
  Crude prevalence, % (95% CI)
Immigrants >5 years
Crude p revalence, % (95% CI)
Immigrants ≤5 years
OR**
(95% CI)
Arthritis/rheumatism 17.4 (16.5-18.2) 2.9 (1.8-3.9) E 2.3 (1.5-3.4)
Cancer (has or has ever had cancer) 5.9 (5.4-6.4)
2.9 (1.8-3.9) E
2.3 (1.4-3.8)
Diabetes (types 1 and 2) 8.5 (7.7-9.3) 2.3 (1.2-3.3) 1.7 (1.0-2.9)
Heart disease/stroke 6.8 (6.2-7.4) 1.5 (0.5-2.4) E 1.1 (0.6-2.3) E
Mood disorders/anxiety*** 7.2 (6.6-7.7) 4.0 (2.8-5.3) 1.6 (1.1-2.2)
Chronic diseases of the digestive system§ 5.9 (5.4-6.4) 2.4 (1.7-3.2) 1.6 (1.2-2.3)
Chronic condition: Obesity or overweight†† 48.6 (47.2-50.0) 28.9 (25.9-31.9) 1.7 (1.5-2.0)
Chronic condition: High blood pressure 20.8 (19.8-21.8) 5.4 (4.0-6.8) E 1.4 (1.0-1.9)

*At least one of the following seven chronic diseases: arthritis, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disease/stroke, mood disorders/anxiety, and chronic diseases of the digestive system.
**Odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age and sex.
***Mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia; anxiety disorders such as phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder or a panic disorder.
CI = confidence intervals
†† Estimated from self-reported height and weight.
§ Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bowel incontinence or intestinal/stomach ulcers.
E = Data with a coefficient of variation from 16.6%-33.3%; therefore, these data should be interpreted with caution.

Spotlight on Research: The Mental Health and Well-Being of Recent Immigrants

  1. Levitt M, Lane J, Levitt J. Immigration stress, social support, and adjustment in the first postmigration year: An intergenerational analysis. Research in Human Development. 2005; 2 (4):159-77.
  2. World Health Organization. Mental health: Strengthening mental health promotion. Fact Sheet No. 220. 2007 Sep [cited 2010 Apr 16]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs220/en/
  3. Canadian Mental Health Association. Meaning of Mental Health. 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 16]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=2-267-1319
  4. World Health Organization. Gender and women's mental health. 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 16]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/index.html
  5. Zhao J, Xue L, Gilkinson T. Health status and social capital of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. In: McDonald T, Ruddick E, Sweetman A, Worswick C, editors. Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. Montréal (QC) and Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press, Queen's Policy Studies Series; 2010. Chapter 12, p. 311 - 40.

Social Determinants of Immigrant Health in Canada: What Makes Some Immigrants Healthy and Others Not?

  1. Young TK. Population Health: Concepts and Methods . New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 4.
  2. Health Canada. Taking Action on Population Health . Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 1998. p. 1.
  3. Dunn JR, Hayes MV. Toward a lexicon of population health. Can J Public Health. 1999;90(Suppl 1):S7-S10 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/viewFile/1406/1595
  4. Raphael D, Bryant T, Rioux M, editors. Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care. Toronto (ON): Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.; 2006.
  5. Mikkonen J, Raphael D. Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts. Toronto (ON): York University School of Health Policy and Management; 2010 [cited 2010 Sep 16]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.thecanadianfacts.org/
  6. Simich L. Health literacy and immigrant populations. Policy brief submitted to the Strategic Inititiatives and Innovations Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009 Mar 30 [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/health_literacy_policy_brief_jun15_e.pdf
  7. Caidi N. Information Practices of Ethno-Cultural Communities (IPEC). Final Report to CERIS. Toronto (ON): Ontario Metropolis Centre; 2008 Apr 10 [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://ceris.metropolis.net/Virtual%20Library/RFPReports/CaidiAllard2005.pdf
  8. Raphael D, editor. Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.; 2004.
  9. Clarke DE, Colantonio A, Rhodes AE, Escobar M. Pathways to suicidality across ethnic groups in Canadian adults: The possible role of social stress. Psychol Med. 2008;38;419-31.
  10. Simich L, Beiser M, Stewart M, Mwakarimba E. Providing social support for immigrants and refugees in Canada: Challenges and directions. J Immigr Health. 2005;7(4):259-68.
  11. Khanlou N. Mental health and immigrant populations. Policy brief for the Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009 Mar.
  12. Hansson E, Tuck A, Lurie S, McKenzie K, for Services Systems Advisory Committee Task Group, Mental Health Commission of Canada. Improving mental health services for immigrant, refugee, ethno-cultural and racialized groups: Issues and options for service improvement. 2009 Nov 12 [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/News/en/IO.pdf
  13. Stewart M, Anderson J, Mwakarimba E, Beiser M, Neufield A, Simich L, et al. Multi-cultural meanings of social support among immigrants and refugees. International Migration. 2008;46(3):123-59.
  14. Hauff E, Vaglum P. Organised violence and the stress of exile: Predictors of mental health in a community cohort of Vietnamese refugees three years after resettlement. Br J Psychiatry. 1995; 166:360-7.
  15. Beiser M. Resettling refugees and safeguarding their mental health: Lessons learned from the refugee resettlement project. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2009;46:539-83.
  16. Hyman I. Racism as a Determinant of Immigrant Health. Unpublished Policy Brief commissioned by the Strategic Initiatives and Innovations Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada. 2008.
  17. Galabuzi G-E. Social exclusion. In: Raphael D, Langille D, editors. Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.; 2004.
  18. Galabuzi G-E. Canada's Economic Apartheid: The Social Exclusion of Racialized Groups in the New Century. Toronto (ON): Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.; 2006.
  19. Statistics Canada. Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population. Catalogue No. 91-551-XWE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2010.
  20. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics. Ethnic Diversity Survey: Portrait of a multicultural society. Catalogue No. 89-593-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2003 Sep [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=89-593-X&lang=eng
  21. Noh S, Kaspar V, Wickrama KA. Overt and subtle racial discrimination and mental health: Preliminary findings for Korean immigrants. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1269-74.
  22. Aydemir A, Skuterud M. Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada's immigrant cohorts, 1966-2000. Canadian Journal of Economics. 2005;38(2):641-72.
  23. Picot G, Hou F, Coulombe S. Chronic low-income and low-income dynamics among recent immigrants. Analytical Studies Research Paper Series. No. 294. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007.
  24. Picot G, Sweetman A. The Deteriorating Economic Welfare of Immigrants and Possible Causes. Analytical Studies Research Paper Series. No. 262. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2005.
  25. Xue L. A comprehensive look at the employment experience of recent immigrants during their first four years in Canada. In: McDonald T, Ruddick E, Sweetman A, Worswick C, editors. Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. Montr é al (QC) and Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press, Queen's Policy Studies Series; 2010. p. 11 - 40.
  26. Simich L, Hamilton H, Baya BK. Mental distress, economic hardship and expectations of life in Canada among Sudanese newcomers. Transcultural Psychiatry. 2006;43(3):418-44.
  27. Wilkinson R, Marmot M, editors. Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2003.
  28. Fleury D. A Study of Poverty and Working Poverty among Recent Immigrants to Canada: Final Report. Ottawa (ON): Human Resources and Social Development Canada; 2007 Jul [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources
    /research/categories/inclusion/2007/sp_680_05_07_e/page00.shtml
  29. Spitzer DL. Engendering health disparities. Can J Public Health. 2005 Mar/Apr;96(2):S78-96 [cited 2010 May 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/view/1492/1681
  30. Statistics Canada. Study: Quality of employment in the Canadian immigrant labour market. The Daily, Monday, November 23, 2009.
  31. Li PS. The market worth of immigrants' educational credentials. Canadian Public Policy. 2001;27(1):23 - 38.
  32. Pendakur K, Pendakur R. Minority earnings disparity across the distribution. Canadian Public Policy. 2007;33(1):41-61.
  33. Beiser M, Johnson PJ, Turner RJ. Unemployment, underemployment and depressive affect among Southeast Asian refugees. Psychol Med. 1993;23:731-43.
  34. Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, Houweling TAJ, Taylor S, for Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2008 Nov 8;372(9650):1661 - 9. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61690-6.

Spotlight on Research: Determinants of Health of Migrant Workers in Canada

  1. McLaughlin J. Background Document on the Social Determinants of Health Among Migrant Farm Workers in Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009.
  2. Hennebry J. International Agricultural Migration and Public Health: Examining Migrant Farm Worker Health. Public Health Agency of Canada; 2008.
  3. For 1998-2008 data: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2008: Immigration Overview-Permanent and Temporary Residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. p. 23. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/index.asp
    For 2009 data: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: Summary tables-Permanent and temporary residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2010 Aug 18 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/resources/statistics/facts2009/index.asp
  4. Calculated using total entries of temporary foreign workers for 2009 from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: Summary tables-Permanent and temporary residents. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2010 Aug 18 [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/English/resources/statistics/facts2009/index.asp
  5. Tucker E. Will the vicious circle of precariousness be unbroken? The exclusion of Ontario farm workers from the Occupational Health and Safety Act. In : Vosko LF, editor. Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada. Montréal (QC) and Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press; 2006. p. 256-76.
  6. Note that this table reflects labour market opinions and not actual number of foreign workers in Canada. (Some workers may transfer between employers.) Source: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. This table and more information about the figures can be found online at: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/workplaceskills/foreign_workers
    /stats/annual/table10a.shtml
  7. International Organization for Migration. Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program Guatemala-Canada. 2008 Dec [cited 2010 Aug 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared
    /mainsite/activities/countries/docs/guatemalan_seasonal_workers_summary08.pdf
  8. Immigration raids and mass detentions come to Canada. Pacific Free Press. 2009 Apr 4 [cited 2010 Nov 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.pacificfreepress.com/news/1/3971-immigration-raids-and-mass-detentions-come-to-canada.html
  9. Hill S. Immigration raids firm, 8 detained. The Windsor Star. 2009 May 29 [cited 2010 Nov 23]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www2.canada.com/windsorstar/news/story.html?id=accae204-960f-40ba-b0b7-7c8cb0333a23
  10. Hansen E, Donohoe M. Health issues of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2003;14(2):153-64.
  11. Villarejo D. The health of U.S. hired farm workers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2003;24(1):175-93.
  12. Arcury TA, Quandt SA. Delivery of health services to migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28(1):345-63.
  13. Hennebry JL. Not just a few bad apples: Vulnerability, health and temporary migration in Canada. Canadian Issues. 2010 Spring: Temporary Foreign Workers. p. 73-77 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/cdn_issues_CITC_mar10_e.pdf
  14. McLaughlin J. Migration and health: Implications for development-A case study of Mexican and Jamaican migrants in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program. FOCAL Policy Paper. Ottawa (ON): FOCAL; 2009 Oct [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.focal.ca/pdf/Migrant%20Health%20McLaughlin%202009.pdf
  15. Otero G, Preibisch K. Farmworker Health and Safety: Challenges for British Columbia. Draft Report. 2009 Oct.
  16. McLaughlin J. Gender, health and mobility: Health concerns of women migrant farm workers in Canada. FOCALPoint. 2008 Dec;7(8):10-11 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.focal.ca/pdf/focalpoint_december2008.pdf

HIV/AIDS and TB in Migrants to Canada

  1. United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS Epidemic Update: November 2009. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 9]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2009/JC1700_Epi_Update_2009_en.pdf
  2. The Public Health Agency of Canada defines an HIV-endemic country as a country that has an HIV prevalence rate of 1.0% or greater in adults (ages 15-49) and any one of the following: a male-to-female ratio of 2:1 or less among prevalent infections; HIV prevalence greater than or equal to 2.0% among women receiving prenatal care; and 50.0% or more of HIV cases are attributed to heterosexual transmission. A list of HIV-endemic countries can be found in: Public Health Agency of Canada. HIV and AIDS in Canada: Surveillance Report to December 31, 2008. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from:
    Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/survreport/2008/dec/index-eng.php#toc
  3. Public Health Agency of Canada. Demographic profile: People from countries where HIV is endemic, Black population, and immigrants, snapshot of the status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among people from countries where HIV is endemic. Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development (ICAD)/African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO) Workshop Presentation, Meeting the Challenge ; 2009 Sep 28; Ottawa (ON).
  4. Because of underreporting of country of birth and race/ethnicity, the Public Health Agency of Canada uses exposure category information to monitor HIV/AIDS within the migrant population. The term "exposure category" refers to the most likely way a person became infected with HIV. The HIV-endemic exposure sub-category is used to refer to individuals from HIV-endemic countries who have been exposed to HIV/AIDS through heterosexual contact. Those who may have been exposed through other routes, such as injection drug use (IDU), are not captured within this sub-category, but rather are reported under the relevant exposure category (e.g., the IDU category in this example).
  5. Public Health Agency of Canada. Snapshot of HIV in Canada: 2008. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada, Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division; 2008.
  6. Santé et Services sociaux. Portrait des infections transmissibles sexuellement et par le sang (ITSS) au Québec : Année 2007 (et projections 2008). Québec: Santé et Services sociaux Québec, Gouvernement du Québec; 2008 [cited 2010 Apr 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://publications.msss.gouv.qc.ca/acrobat/f/documentation/2008/08-329-02.pdf
  7. Remis RS, Merid MF. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic among Persons from HIV-Endemic Countries in Ontario: Update to December 2002. Toronto (ON): University of Toronto, Ontario HIV Epidemiological Monitoring Unit; 2004.
  8. Public Health Agency of Canada. HIV and AIDS in Canada: Surveillance Report to December 31, 2008. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/survreport/2008/dec/index-eng.php#toc
  9. A country with a high incidence of tuberculosis is defined as having a WHO-estimated three-year average rate of sputum smear positive pulmonary TB of 15 per 100,000 or greater.
  10. Long R, Ellis E. Canadian Tuberculosis Standards. 6th ed. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada and Canadian Lung Association/Canadian Thoracic Society; 2007.
  11. Public Health Agency of Canada. Tuberculosis in Canada 2008. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. In press 2010.
  12. Wells CD, Cegielski JP, Nelson LJ, Laserson KF, Holtz TH, Finlay A, et al. HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis-The perfect storm. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 1;196(Suppl 1):S86-107.
  13. World Health Organization (WHO). Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): 2010 Global Report on Surveillance and Response. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.3. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
  14. Highleyman L. Drug Interactions and Anti-HIV Therapy. San Francisco (CA): San Francisco AIDS Foundation; 2005 Jan 1. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.sfaf.org/beta/2005_sum/interactions.html ; and Young B. Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Abacavir may be appropriate for some treatment-naive patients with low-baseline viral loads. The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource. 2006 Sep 28 [online journal]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.thebody.com/content/art38293.html . Ci ted in: Public Health Agency of Canada. Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report: People from Countries where HIV is Endemic-Black people of African and Caribbean descent living in Canada. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/ps-pd/africacaribbe/index-eng.php
  15. James L. HIV Prevention Guidelines and Manual: A Tool for Service Providers Serving African and African Caribbean Communities Living in Canada. 1st ed. Toronto (ON): African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO) and Women's Health in Women's Hands Community Health Centre (WHIWH); 2006 Jul. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.accho.ca/pdf/hiv_manual-part_1_ENGLISH.pdf . Cited in: Public Health Agency of Canada. Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report: People from Countries where HIV is Endemic-Black people of African and Caribbean descent living in Canada. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/ps-pd/africacaribbe/index-eng.php
  16. Public Health Agency of Canada. Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report: People from Countries where HIV is Endemic: Black people of African and Caribbean descent living in Canada. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/ps-pd/africacaribbe/index-eng.php For more details, visit the Citizenship and Immigration Canada website: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca
  17. Committee for Accessible AIDS Treatment. Action Research Report: Improving Access to Legal Services & Health-Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS who are Immigrants, Refugees or without Status. Toronto (ON): Regent Park Community Health Centre; 2001.
  18. African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO), and the University of Toronto, HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit. HIV/AIDS Stigma, Denial, Fear and Discrimination: Experiences and Responses of People from African and Caribbean Communities in Toronto. Toronto (ON): University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit; 2006 [cited 2010 Mar 9]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.accho.ca/pdf/hiv_stigma_report.pdf
  19. Omorodion F, Gbadebo K, Ishak P. HIV vulnerability and sexual risk among African youth in Windsor, Canada. Culture, Health & Sexuality 2007;9(4): 429-37. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.muhc.ca/files/research/Optimizing_Health_Outcomes.pdf
  20. Tharao E, Massaquoi N, Teclom S. Silent Voices of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic: African and Caribbean Women in Toronto 2002-2004. Toronto (ON): Women's Health in Women's Hands Community Health Centre; 2006 Apr [cited 2010 Mar 9]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.whiwh.com/Silent%20Voices%20of%20HIV%20Final%20Report.pdf
  21. Simich L, Mawani F, Wu F, Noor A. Working Paper Series: Meanings of Social Support, Coping, and Help-Seeking Strategies among Immigrants and Refugees in Toronto. CERIS Working Paper No. 31. Toronto (ON): Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement; 2004 May [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://ceris.metropolis.net/Virtual%20Library/health/2004%20CWPs/CWP31_Simich%20etal.pdf
  22. Kazemipur A. Social Capital of Immigrants in Canada. PCERII Working Paper Series. Working Paper No. WP04-04. Edmonton (AB): Prairie Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Integration; 2004 Apr [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://pcerii.metropolis.net/WorkingPapers/WP04.04.pdf
  23. Uretsky MC, Mathieson SG. The effects of years lived in the United States on the general health status of California's foreign-born populations. J Immigr Health. 2007;9:125-36.
  24. Lawson E, Gardezi F, Calzavara L, Husbands W, Myers T, Tharao WE. HIV/AIDS Stigma, Denial, Fear and Discrimination: Experiences and Responses of People from African and Caribbean Communities in Toronto. Toronto (ON): African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO), and University of Toronto, HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit; 2006. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.accho.ca/pdf/hiv_stigma_report.pdf . Cited in: Public Health Agency of Canada. Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report, People from Countries where HIV is Endemic-Black people of African and Caribbean descent living in Canada. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 31]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/ps-pd/africacaribbe/index-eng.php

Health Services Use Among Immigrants and Refugees to Canada

  1. Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census. Catalogue No. 97-557-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007 Dec [cited 2010 Mar 18]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/index-eng.cfm
  2. Statistics Canada. Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population. Catalogue No. 91-551-X. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2010.
  3. Dias SF, Severo M, Barros H. Determinants of health care utilization by immigrants in Portugal. BMC Health Services Research. 2008; 8: 207 [cited 2010 Mar 18]. DOI :10.1186/1472-6963-8-207. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/8/207
  4. Robert AM, Gilkinson T. Mental Health and Well-Being of Migrants. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2010.
  5. Hyman I. Immigration and Health. Health Policy Working Paper Series. Working Paper 01-05. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2001 Sep.
  6. Wen SW, Goel V, Williams JI. Utilization of health care services by immigrants and other ethnic/cultural groups in Ontario. Ethnic Health. 1996;1:99-109.
  7. Kinnon D. Canadian Research on Immigration and Health-An Overview. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 1999.
  8. MacDonald JT, Kennedy S. Cervical cancer screening by immigrant and minority women in Canada. J Immigr Minor Health. 2007;9(4):323-34.
  9. McDermott S, DesMeules M, Lewis R, Gold J, Payne J, LaFrance B, et al. Cancer incidence among Canadian immigrants, 1980-1998: Results from a national cohort study. J Immigr Minor Health. E-publication ahead of print; 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://metapress.com/content/398r6316n5680613/fulltext.pdf
  10. Kazanjian A, Chen A, DesMeules M, Manuel D, Vissandjee B, Ruddick E. Utilization of medical specialists by immigrants in British Columbia, Canada. Abstr Academy Health Meet. 2004; 21:abstract no. 1010.
  11. Beiser M, Hou F. Ethnic identity, resettlement stress and depressive affect among Southeast Asian refugees in Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2006 ;63:137-50.
  12. Whitley R, Kirmayer L, Groleau D. Understanding immigrants' reluctance to use mental health services: A qualitative study from Montreal. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51(4):205-9.
  13. Simich L. Health Literacy and Immigrant Populations. Policy brief submitted to the Public Health Agency of Canada and Metropolis Canada. Toronto (ON); 2009 Mar [cited 2010 May]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/health_literacy_policy_brief_jun15_e.pdf
  14. World Health Organization (WHO). Health of migrants: The way forward-Report of a global consultation, Madrid, Spain, 3-5 March 2010. Geneva: WHO; 2010 [cited 2010 Mar 18]. p. 61-70. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.who.int/hac/events/consultation_report_health_
    migrants_colour_web.pdf
  15. Anderson L, Scrimshaw S, Fullilove M, Fielding J, Normand J, and Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Culturally competent healthcare systems: A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(3):68-79.
  16. Ng E, Wilkins R, Gendron F, Berthelot JM. Dynamics of Immigrant's Health in Canada: Evidence from the National Population Health Survey. Catalogue No. 82-618-MWE2005002. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2005.

Health Status and Social Capital of Recent Immigrants to Canada

  1. Policy Research Initiative. Social Capital as a Public Policy Tool: Project Report. Ottawa (ON): Government of Canada; 2005.
  2. Franke S. What is social capital and why is it important to health research and policy? Health Policy Research Bulletin. 2006;12:6-9.
  3. Kawachi I, Kennedy B, Glass R. Social capital and self-rated health: A contextual analysis. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89(8):1187-93.
  4. Berkman L, Glass T. Social integration, social networks, social support and health. In: Berkman L, Kawachi I, editors. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 137-73.
  5. Putnam R. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2000.
  6. Zhao J. Socio-economic Determinants of Health and Health Care Utilization of Recent Immigrants in Canada. Prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2007.
  7. van Kemenade S, Roy J, Bouchard L. Social networks and vulnerable populations: Findings from the GSS. Health Policy Research Bulletin. 2006;12:16-20.
  8. Xue L. Social capital and labour market outcomes of recent immigrants to Canada: Employment entry, wages and duration of access to the first job in intended occupation [PhD dissertation]. Ottawa (ON): University of Ottawa; 2008.
  9. Ooka E, Wellman B. Does social capital pay off more within or between ethnic groups? Analyzing job searches in five Toronto ethnic groups. In: Fong E, editor. Inside the Mosaic. Toronto (ON): University of Toronto Press; 2006. p. 199-226.
  10. Zhao J, Xue L, Gilkinson T. Health status and social capital of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. In: McDonald T, Ruddick E, Sweetman A, Worswick C, editors. Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. Montréal (QC) and Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press, Queen's Policy Studies Series; 2010. Chapter 12, p. 311-40.
  11. Statistics Canada. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, Wave 3-Microdata User Guide. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2007.
  12. Ueno K.  Emotional Consequences of Racial Concordance in Friendship Network and School Context.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association; 2004 Aug 14.
  13. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Backgrounder: Strategic Plan and Service Improvements. Ottawa (ON): Citizenship and Immigration Canada; 2006 [cited 2010 Sep 10]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cic.gc.ca/english//department/media/backgrounders/2006/2006-12-15.asp

Using Canada's Health Data

  1. Statistics Canada. Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population. Catalogue No. 91-551-X. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2010.
  2. Wilkins R, Sherman GJ, Best PAF. Birth outcomes and infant mortality by income in urban Canada, 1986. Health Rep. 1991;3(1):7-31.
  3. Valkonen T, Branker A, Reijo M. Mortality differentials between three populations-Residents of Scandinavia, Scandinavian immigrants to Canada and Canadian-born residents of Canada, 1979-1985. Health Rep. 1992;4(2):137-59.
  4. Wilkins K. Tuberculosis 1994. Health Rep. 1996;8(1):33-39.
  5. McDonald JT, Kennedy S. Insights into the 'Healthy Immigrant Effect': Health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2004; 59:1613-27.
  6. Chiu M, Austin PC, Manuel DG, Tu JV. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profiles among ethnic groups using population health surveys between 1996 and 2007. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 May 18;182(8):E301-10 [cited 2010 Oct 28]. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.091676. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/182/8/E301
  7. Hyman I. Setting the stage: Reviewing current knowledge on the health of Canadian immigrants: What is the evidence and where are the gaps? Can J Public Health. 2004;95(3):I4-8.
  8. Gagnon A, Zimbeck M, Zeitlin J. Migration and perinatal health surveillance: An international Delphi survey. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;149(1):37-43.
  9. DesMeules M, Gold J, Kazanjian A, Manuel D, Payne J, Vissandjee B, et al. New approaches to immigrant health assessment. Can J Public Health. 2005;95(3):I22-6.
  10. Ng E, Wilkins R, Gendron F, Berthelot J-M. Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: Evidence from the National Population Health Survey. Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings from the National Population Health Survey. Issue 2. Catalogue No. 82-618-MWE2005002. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2005 [cited 2010 May 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm
  11. Perez CF. Health status and health behaviour among immigrants. Health Rep. 2002;13(Suppl):89-100.
  12. Ali J. Mental health of Canada's immigrants. Health Rep. 2002; 13(Suppl):1-11.
  13. Sanmartin C, Ross N. Experiencing difficulties accessing first-contact health services in Canada. Healthcare Policy. 2006;1(2):103-19.
  14. Han A, Rotermann M, Fuller-Thomson EF, Ray JG. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplement use according to maternal country of birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009 Mar;222-6.
  15. Zhao J, Xue L, Gilkinson T. Health status and social capital of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. In: McDonald T, Ruddick E, Sweetman A, Worswick C, editors. Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. Montréal (QC) Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press, Queen's Policy Study Series; 2010. Chapter 12, p. 311-40.
  16. Canadian Council on Learning. Health literacy in Canada: A healthy understanding. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Council on Learning; 2008.
  17. Ng E, Omariba DWR. Health Literacy and Immigrants in Canada: Determinants and effects on health outcomes. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Council on Learning; 2010 Mar [cited 2010 May 27]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/OtherReports/201008NgOmaribaHealthLiteracyImmigrants.html
  18. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard C, Choinière R. The Canadian census mortality follow-up study, 1991 through 2001. Health Rep. 2008;19(3): 25-43.
  19. Urquia ML, Frank JW, Glaizier RH, Moineddin R. Birth outcomes by neighbourhood income and recent immigration in Toronto. Health Rep. 2007;18(4):21-30.
  20. DesMeules M, Gold J, McDermott S, Cao Z, Payne J, Lafrance B, et al. Disparities in mortality patterns among Canadian immigrants and refugees, 1980-1998: Results of a national cohort study. J Immigr Health. 2005;97(4):221-32.

Who's Doing What?

  1. The Strategic Policy Research Division, within the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) has recently elaborated a Strategic Policy Research Agenda to provide guidance to PHAC research activities. Further information on ongoing and upcoming research as well as research gaps and research questions can be found in Chapter 7, which is dedicated to migration health.
  2. Khanlou N. Immigrant Mental Health. Policy brief commissioned by the Strategic Initiatives and Innovations Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009 Mar 30 [cited 2010 Apr 9]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/Health%20Seminar/Khanlou-Health%20Seminar-EN.pdf
  3. Simich L. Health Literacy and Immigrant Populations. Policy brief submitted to the Public Health Agency of Canada and Metropolis Canada. Toronto (ON); 2009 Mar [cited 2010 Apr 12]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/health_literacy_policy_brief_jun15_e.pdf
  4. Hyman I. Racism as a Determinant of Immigrant Health. Policy brief commissioned by the Strategic Initiatives and Innovations Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009 Mar [cited 2010 Apr 12]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/racism_policy_brief_e.pdf
  5. McDermott S, Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada. A National Approach to Immigrant Health Assessment. Presentation to the Public Health Agency of Canada Migration Health Network. 2008 Feb 21.
  6. Public Health Agency of Canada. Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report: People from Countries where HIV is Endemic-Black people of African and Caribbean descent living in Canada. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aids-sida/publication/ps-pd/africacaribbe/index-eng.php
  7. McGill University Health Centre, Montreal Chest Institute, Royal Victoria Hospital, The Immunodeficiency Service. Optimizing health outcomes for HIV-infected refugees from Sub-Saharan Africa. Report prepared for the Centre of Resources, Interventions and Services in Sexual Health (CRISS). Montréal (QC); 2007 Mar 5 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://assets.muhc.ca/files/research/Optimizing_Health_Outcomes.pdf
  8. Hennebry J. Migrant farm worker health and the public health implications of agricultural temporary migration. Unpublished internal document. Public Health Agency of Canada; 2008.
  9. McLaughlin J. Background Document on the Social Determinants of Health among Migrant Farm Workers in Canada. Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada. 2009 Mar 31.
  10. Kinnon D. Canadian Research on Immigration and Health: An Overview. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 1999 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H21-149-1999E.pdf
  11. Hyman I. Immigration and Health. Health Policy Working Paper Series. Working Paper No. 01-05. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2001 Sep.
  12. Zhao J, Xue L, Gilkinson T. Health status and social capital of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. In: McDonald T, Ruddick E, Sweetman A, Worswick C, editors. Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. Montréal (QC) and Kingston (ON): McGill-Queen's University Press, Queen's Policy Studies Series; 2010. Chapter 12, p. 311-40.
  13. Health Canada. Focus group research with intermediaries who promote healthy eating among specific ethno-cultural communities, Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2007.
  14. Ng E, Wilkins R, Gendron F, Berthelot J-M. Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: Evidence from the National Population Health Survey. Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings from the National Population Health Survey. Issue 2. Catalogue No. 82-618-MWE2005002. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2005 [cited 2010 Apr 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm
  15. Mental Health Commission of Canada. Understanding the issues, best practice and options for service development to meet the needs of ethno-cultural groups, immigrants, refugees, and racialized groups. Mental Health Commission of Canada; 2009 [cited 2010 Apr 20]. Available from: Next link will take you to another Web site http://www.camh.net/Public_policy/Public_policy_papers/Consultation%20Document_Summary.pdf
  16. See Next link will take you to another Web site http://canada.metropolis.net [cited 2010 Apr 20].